Copyright (c) 2018-2021 Dr. Thomas Redelberger, redethogmx.de. All rights reserved. You may quote and copy this publication provided you link back to this original web-site. Suggestions for amendments and improvements are welcome.
This information is provided as-is. I do not take any responsibility and do not grant any warranty nor do I imply any fitness for any purpose or kind, nor shall I be liable for any issues when using it.
The original version of this document was in English language. I might do a German version. People are invited to do translations to other languages. But they shall properly cite me and link back to this original web-site.
I had created a TinyCore virtual machine for browsing the Internet. As from Windows 10 1803, the performance was degraded substantially, as CPU load was close to 100% most of the time. I decided to not investigate this, but rather build a new VM. I chose Debian, because I wanted to go standard and was curious how small a "minimal" VM would be, using the standard Debian distribution.
In Hyper-V I used the same settings I had used for my TinyCore VM. I went for a 5 GB VHD as per Debian sizing guidelines.
From the Hyper-V Integration Services, I switched on:
I went for the Debian 9 (aka Stretch) 64-bit iso. I had tried Debian 9 32-bit, but it would not work, presumably for the same reason I could not get TinyCore v7 to work (issue with hard disk access).
In the Debian installer, I chose:
Expert Mode allowed me to set two important details right away:
For the minimal install, I deselected everything:
[ ] Debian desktop environment [ ] . GNOME [ ] . Xfce [ ] . KDE [ ] . Cinnamon [ ] . MATE [ ] . LXDE [ ] web server [ ] print server [ ] SSH server [ ] Standard system utilities
As a simple file manager plus text editor I chose midnight commander (mc), because it can also be used in text mode:
$ apt install mc $ apt clean
Finally, in terms of size
$ df -h
showed 906 MB.
As my PC is not running round the clock, I needed to add
$ apt install anacron
This makes sure that clean-up tasks like "rotating" log files are done
properly. Otherwise the directory
/var/log would grow to substantial
size over time.
logrotate. Hence the details could be
configured by changing
For the X-Windows graphical system, the established standard is:
$ apt install xorg
I chose the minimal X-window manager
flwm, the same as with TinyCore:
$ apt install flwm
flwm-topside, which is used in TinyCore, is not available in Debian.
flwm-topside has the controls at the top of the window, whereas
flwm has them on the left. Seems that
compiling, which I am not (yet) ready to do.
To integrate the X-clipboard with
mcedit - the text editor of
mc - I
$ apt install xclip
$ apt install firefox
did not work. I had to do
$ apt install firefox-esr
This yielded version 52.5.2 which seemed quite behind the usual Firefox version. Maybe the "esr" is related to this.
For transferring files in and out of the VM, I use an FTP server running in the VM. There seem to be three choices in Debian:
proftpdwhich is a 5,644 KB package
I went for
pure-ftpd, as it was smallest and seemed most easy to use:
$ apt install pure-ftpd
This enabled FTP access to my home directory right away, with no further configuration needed.
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="There is probably stuff here"
I changed it to read (1280x1024 is my choice on a 1920x1200 physical screen):
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet elevator=noop splash video=hyperv_fb:1280x1024"
$ sudo update-grub
The standard way to launch programs from
flwm is a right-click on the
desktop. To customise that pop-up menu, I created the directory
~/.wmx exists, it replaces the default menu, which is configured
which is auto-generated. I used it as a reference.
~/.wmx shall contain another directory
Applications, where I put
four shell scripts called
#!/bin/sh exec firefox *#!/bin/sh exec xterm -e mc *#!/bin/sh exec xterm -e mcedit *#!/bin/sh exec xterm
I also created a file
This file customises what happens, when I do a
startx from the command
#!/bin/sh xsetroot -solid \#0E5CA8 ###xrdb .Xresources # xset, xmodmap, other configuration programs # # flwm -x: menu will say Exit instead of Logout flwm -x & # WindowManager=$! # # xterm, other automatically-launched programs firefox & /home/myusername/myClpbrdd.sh & # wait $WindowManager
xsetroot sets the desktop background to a colour I prefer.
flwm & starts the X-window manager. The
-x will just bring me back
to the terminal instead of logging me out, when I select the Exit
pop-up menu item in
-x the menu item will read
firefox & already fires up one browser window ready to be used.
myClpbrdd.sh is a small demon I wrote to accept Windows clipboard data
in the VM, and populate the X-windows clipboard. There is a
corresponding VBscript file on the Windows side.
I want the system to log me in as a non-privileged user automatically. I found the following solution on the Internet:
$ mkdir /email@example.com $ mcedit /firstname.lastname@example.org/override.conf
[Service] ExecStart= ExecStart=-/sbin/agetty --autologin myusername --noclear %I $TERM
I am not clear, what the first
ExecStart= line does.
I further add the following line to
[[ -z $DISPLAY && $XDG_VTNR -eq 1 ]] && exec startx
I could create further virtual text consoles (i.e. non-X-windows) with
CTRL-ALT-F2, etc., for example to do
only root can do. CTRL-ALT-F1 brings me back to my unprivileged
However, normally I do not need to shutdown the Debian system, as I have Hyper-V start and shutdown the VM automatically, when Windows starts and stops. However, I noticed that recent Windows versions do not seem to normally shutdown and start VMs, but rather put VMs to sleep and wake them up again, like Windows itself.
The Debian VM seems fine with this. For example, the system clock is always OK. I could not manage to get the clock synchronised in TinyCore.
To be able to exchange text content between
mcedit (the text editor
mc) and the X-windows clipboard, I needed to edit the
For that I have to use the
nano editor, which seems to be installed by
default. I could not use
mcedit itself for that task, because the file
would be overwritten on exit and my changes lost.
$ nano ~/.config/mc/ini
I looked for lines
and replaced them by
clipboard_store=xclip -i -selection clipboard clipboard_paste=xclip -o -selection clipboard
For example, you could copy text in Firefox using CTRL-C. In
you would paste it using SHFT-Insert.
mcedit, CTRL-Insert does copy, SHFT-Del does cut.
In doubt do F9 "menu" to see the short-cuts.
I created a VBscript
Clpbrd-ftp-Deb.vbs to upload the Windows
clipboard text content to a directory called
Downloads under the home
directory of my non-privileged account in the Debian VM.
In the VM the script
When I want to bring text from Windows into the VM, the steps are:
So it is only one more step as natively in Windows or X-Windows.
To compare the effort for setting up the TinyCore VM and the Debian VM, I use my subjective feeling how long it took and how much I needed to read, to get the tasks done:
xorgworked right away and there had been no issues with Hyper-V screen and mouse compatibility
I also hope that Debian will keep being maintained and stable for the foreseeable future.
I had set-up the TinyCore VM solely as a secure environment to browse the web. The Debian VM as described above has exactly the same functionality.
However, the Debian VM is based on a standard set-up that can be
extended to any use easily, using the well-established and documented
apt tool. When you combine this with "cloning" VMs and with using
Hyper-V Restore Points, you can easily generate flexible and
True, a TinyCore system can also be extended to any use with its built-in tools. But the delta will be much bigger and the effort higher, because you start from a "tiny" system.
All below needs to be done as root user.
I was curious to see how much space the Debian VM would require and I wanted to make sure I could control its size when maintaining it going forward. To see the effect, I first did
$ df -h
I removed unused packages by
$ apt autoremove
First check how big:
$ du -sh /var/cache/apt
Then clean it up:
$ apt clean
$ du -sh ~/.cache
and then e.g.
$ rm -rf ~/.cache/mozilla/*
Check active /locale/ :
See all installed /locales/ :
$ locales -a
This showed in my case:
C C.UTF-8 en\_US.utf8 Posix
which looks lean to me. If needed, unused locales could be removed by
$ df -h
My VM uses about 2.0 GB. Hence there is some spare space left from the
total 5 GB size of the VHD. That space is available for file
up/download, as files first go to the
Downloads directory and then
get transferred to/from Windows using FTP.
$ apt update $ apt upgrade
keeps the system up-to-date. This has to be done as root.
The VM described above could be run under any decent VM environment and operating system, not just Hyper-V on Windows. If you are going to access the VM from Windows, then there is another option to access the VM: Microsoft's RDP (remote desktop) protocol. This has the following advantages over the approach above:
The approach to build such a VM is largely the same as above, with the following differences:
apt install xrdpinstead of
apt install xorg. When installed,
xrdpgets started from
systemdautomatically, similar to
xorgin the approach described above.
/etc/X11/Xwrapper.configand change the line
systemdalready and no need to issue
xrdprequires a separate login anyway.
xorg approach above generates one window that you
access from Windows via Hyper-V's "Connect to VM" tool, either from
the Hyper-V manager or using
vmconnect.exe, which you can call from
a shortcut or the command line. This window shows either a VM text
console or an xorg/window manager desktop. You can switch between
various consoles and the desktop via CTRL-ALT-F1, CTRL-ALT-F2, … as
usual in Linux.
xrdp approach will rather yield two windows:
bash). I only use it to log in as
rootto maintain the VM. You control the screen size/resolution from
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULTlike mentioned above.
xrdplogin screen. You get access to this window from Windows using
mstsc.exe. ("tsc" stands for "terminal services", the older name for RDP). You control the screen size/resolution with the
mstsc.exe is by default launched from files with extension
.rdp file allows to configure an RDP connection.
%USERPROFILE%\Documents, there is the hidden file
You might want to copy it, give it a meaningful name like
myDebian.rdp and edit it on the command line like
mstsc /edit %USERPROFILE%\Documents\myDebian.rdp
Or you right click on it and select "Edit" from the pop-up menu. The most import setting is the IP address of the VM. Do not forget to do "Save" or "Save As…" on the first tab.
.rdp file also allows to configure to direct sound output from
the VM, but sound on the VM requires some more Linux software to be
installed and presumably settings in the VM which I still have to
To configure whether or not root is allowed to login via
might want to check the file
/etc/xrdp/sesman.ini, where the default
I changed it to False.